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Shipping our products outside of Canada in regards to customs is at the buyer's own risk due to the fact that every region/state varies regarding import regulations. Creature Comfort will not be held responsible or liable for any problems that result at your local customs office, nor for any customs duties or taxes that arise from your local customs office. If customs duties are assessed, these are in addition to your shipping charges and must be paid directly by you. No refunds will be given for items that are seized at your local customs office. We will also not be held responsible for any additional fees the local carrier in your country may charge.
A wide variety of tests are used to certify good health or
indicate the presence of infection or disease. The major tests and some of the
common vocabulary in lab reports are explained below. A Complete Blood Count (CBC)
indicates the number and type of cells in the dog's blood. This standard test
can identify anemia and leukemia, as well as the presence of many infections. A
Serum Chemistry Profile includes a variety of tests that examine the functioning
of organs, such as the liver and thyroid. If these tests indicate any
When you have the blood work done, make sure your pets has fasted for at least 12 hours before the test. Some difference in clinical chemistries exist between breeds. You should always establish what is normal for your pet. Their bodies are all different. The abnormal reading may be normal for your pet.
Red Blood Cells (RBC) - Responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. High red blood cell numbers usually indicate dehydration but can also indicate uncommon diseases that cause an excess production of red blood cells from the bone marrow. Iron deficiency will lower RBC count. In more reduced count, it may indicate hemorrhage, parasites, bone marrow disease, B-12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency or copper deficiency some immune diseases and toxin ingestion. RBC's live for 120 days so an anemia of any kind other than hemorrhage indicates a long standing problem.
Hematocrit (HCT) or Packed Cell Volume (PCV) - Provides information on the amount of red blood cells (RBC's) present in the blood. The hematocrit is a calculated percentage of red blood cells in the circulation. It gives similar information to the red blood cell count but the value is expressed as a percentage. The other part of the blood is serum, containing enzymes, proteins, electrolytes, etc. Decreased levels means anemia from hemorrhage, parasites, nutritional deficiencies or chronic disease process, such as liver disease, cancer, etc. . Increased levels are often seen in dehydration.
Hemoglobin (Hb) - The essential oxygen carrier of the blood. Decreased levels indicate the presence of hemorrhage, anemia, iron deficiency. Increased levels indicate higher than normal concentrate of RBC, B-12 deficiency (because there are fewer cells).
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) - This is the average size of the red blood cells. A high MCV usually indicated certain vitamin deficiencies. A low MCV indicated iron deficiency.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is an abbreviation for mean corpuscular hemoglobin. This is the average weight of hemoglobin in each red blood cell and is different than hemoglobin circulating in the blood. A high MCH indicates poorly oxygenated blood. A low MCH indicates iron deficiency.
Mean Corpuscular hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) - is an abbreviation for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. This is the average percentage of hemoglobin in each red blood cell. A high MCHC indicates that there is too much hemoglobin in the red blood cell, indicating a high iron level since an important component of hemoglobin is iron. Iron excess is just as damaging to the body as iron deficiency. A low MCHC indicates anemia.
Reticulocytes - Immature red blood cells. Decreased count is usually associated with anemia. Increased count is associated with chronic hemorrhage or hemolytic anemia.
Platelets (PLT) - Play an important role in blood clotting. Decrease in number occurs in bone marrow depression, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus, severe hemorrhage or intravascular coagulation. Increased number may occurs with fracture or blood vessel injury, or cancer
White blood cells (WBC) - Elevated white blood cell counts indicate infection, inflammation and some forms of cancer or leukemia. Low white blood cells counts can indicate viral infections, bone marrow abnormalities or overwhelming infections and sepsis (blood poisoning). In this situation, the white blood cells are concentrated in the area of infection and are not circulating in the blood, resulting in a low count.
A differential is an analysis of the different types of white blood cells. There are five types of white blood cells and the distribution of these cells can help determine an underlying cause of illness.
Segmental Neutrophils (Segs) - These are the primary white blood cells responsible for fighting infections. High levels of neutrophils indicate infection. Low levels can indicate sepsis. The neutrophils are concentrated in the area of infection or are rapidly being used, leaving less circulating in the blood.
Lymphocytes (L/M) - These smooth, round white blood cells are responsible for fighting infection and also develop antibodies to protect the body against future attacks. High levels of lymphocytes can indicate infection, viral disease or certain cancers such as lymphosarcoma. Low levels can indicate viral infections affecting the bone marrow or sepsis.
Monocytes (Mono) - This white blood cell helps the neutrophils fight infections. High monocyte counts indicate infection. It is unlikely that there will be no monocytes and a differential with zero monocytes does not indicate any specific ailment.
Eosinophil (Eos) - This white blood cell is primarily involved in fighting allergies or parasites. High eosinophil counts indicate an allergy or parasite causing illness. Low levels are not possible since zero eosinophils are possible in normal blood samples.
Basophils (Baso) - This white blood cell is not very common but can be seen in certain parasitic infection, primarily heartworm. High levels indicate possible parasitism. Low levels are not possible since zero basophils are possible in normal blood samples.
Calcium (CA) - Blood calcium levels are influenced by diet, hormone levels and blood protein levels. Decreased levels indicate acute damage to the pancreas or under active parathyroid. Muscle twitches may occur in decreased level. Increased levels can be an indicator of certain types of tumors, parathyroid or kidney disease. Dr. Goldstein mentioned in his book, Nature of Animal Healing that low calcium level may indicate deficiency of pancreatic enzymes, and high calcium level may indicate poor metabolism of fats and protein.
Phosphorus (PHOS) - Affected by diet, parathormone and kidney. Decreased levels shows overactive parathyroid gland and malignancies, malnutrition and malabsorption. Increases with under active parathyroid gland and kidney failure.
Electrolytes (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride) - The balance of these chemicals is vital to health. Abnormal levels can be life threatening. Electrolyte tests are important in evaluating vomiting, diarrhea and cardiac symptoms.
Cholesterol (CHOL) - Decreased levels are found in an overactive thyroid gland, interstinal malabsorption. Elevated levels of cholesterol are seen in a variety of disorders including hypothyroidism and diseases of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular, diabetes, stress.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) - An enzyme that becomes elevated with liver disease.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALKP) - An enzyme produced by the biliary tract (liver). High levels indicate bone disease, liver disease or bile flow blockage.
Total Bilirubin (TBIL) - A component of bile, bilirubin is secreted by the liver into the intestinal tract. High levels can lead to jaundice and indicate destruction in the liver and bile duct.
Total Protein (TP) - Increases indicate dehydration or blood cancer, bone marrow cancer; decreases indicate malnutrition, poor digestion, liver or kidney disease, bleeding or burns.
Globulins (GLOB) - Decreased levels indicate problems with antibodies, immunodeficiency viruses or risk of infectious disease. Increased levels may indicate stress, dehydration or blood cancer, allergies, liver disease, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes.
Albumin (ALB) - Produced by the liver, reduced levels of this protein can point to chronic liver or kidney disease, or parasitic infections such as hookworm. High levels indicate dehydration and loss of protein.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) - BUN is produced by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Decreased levels are seen with low protein diets, liver insufficiency, and the use of anabolic steroid drug. Increased levels indicate any condition that reduces the kidney's ability to filter body fluids in the body or interferes with protein breakdown.
Creatinine (CREA) - Creatinine is a by-product of muscle metabolism and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels can indicate kidney disease or urinary obstruction, muscle disease, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, and diabetes. An increased BUN and normal creatinine suggest an early or mild problem. An increased creatinine and increased BUN with elevated phosphorus indicate a long standing kidney disease.
Blood Glucose (GLU) - High levels can help diagnose diabetes and can indicate stress, excess of the hormone progesterone, an overactive adrenal gland. Low levels can indicate liver disease, tumors or abnormal growth on pancreas, an under active adrenal gland.
Amylase (AMYL) - The pancreas produces and secrets amylase to aid in digestion. Elevated blood levels can indicate pancreatic and/or kidney disease.
FEEDING & BLOODWORK
Below is further information.
|Hematocrit (Hb) - Hematocrit is the
measurement of the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.
Decreased Hematocrit (anemia) can be caused by poor nutrition, parasites
or chronic disease including cancer and liver disease. Increased values
(dehydration) are more of a concern with the dry kibbled fed dog than
the raw fed dog because of the lack of moisture of the diet. Raw fed
dogs are also more likely to get adequate iron and vitamin B from their
higher quality protein diets.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) - BUN is a waste product derived from protein breakdown in the liver. Low levels are most commonly due to inadequate protein intake, malabsorption, or liver damage. Increased levels can be caused by kidney damage, certain drugs, low fluid intake, intestinal bleeding, exercise, heart failure or decreased digestive enzyme production by the pancreas. Raw fed dogs typically have higher BUN levels because they consume more protein.
Creatinine (CREA) - Creatinine is also a protein breakdown product. Its level is a reflection of the body’s muscle mass. Low levels are commonly seen with inadequate protein intake, liver disease, kidney damage or pregnancy. Elevated levels are generally reflective of kidney damage and need to be monitored carefully.
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